USB Specification

Universal Serial Bus Specification Revision 2.0

Universal Serial Bus Specification Revision 2.0

Chapter 2

Terms and Abbreviations

 

ACK

 

 

Active Device

 

Asynchronous Data

 

Asynchronous RA

 

 

Asynchronous SRC

 

 

Audio Device

 

 

AWG#

 

Babble

 

 

Bandwidth

 

 

 

Big Endian

 

 

Bit

 

 

Bit Stuffing

 

 

 

b/s

 

 

B/s

 

 

 

Buffer

 

 

Bulk Transfer

 

 

Bus Enumeration

 

Byte

 

Capabilities

 

Characteristics

 

Client

 

 

Configuring Software

 

 

Control Endpoint

 

Control Pipe

 

Control Transfer

 

 

Computer Telephony Integration (CTI)

 

Cyclic Redundancy

Check (CRC)

 

Default Address

 

Default Pipe

 

 

Device

 

Device Address

 

Device Endpoint

 

 

Device Resources

 

 

Device Software

 

 

Downstream

 

Driver (hardware)

 

Driver (software)

 

DWORD (Double Word)

 

Dynamic Insertion

and Removal

 

Electrically

Erasable

Programmable

Read Only Memory

(EEPROM)

 

End User

 

Endpoint

 

Endpoint Address

 

Endpoint Direction

 

Endpoint Number

 

Envelope detector

 

 

EOF

 

EOP

 

External Port

 

Eye pattern

 

 

False EOP

 

 

Frame

 

Frame Pattern

 

 

Fs

 

Full-duplex

 

Full-speed

 

Function

 

Handshake Packet

 

High-bandwidth

endpoint

 

High-speed

 

Host

 

Host Controller

 

Host Controller

Driver (HCD)

 

Host Resources

 

Hub

 

Hub Tier

 

 

Interrupt Request

(IRQ)

 

Interrupt Transfer

 

 

I/O Request Packet

 

 

IRP

 

IRQ

 

Isochronous Data

 

 

Isochronous Device

 

 

Isochronous Sink

Endpoint

 

Isochronous Source

Endpoint

 

Isochronous

Transfer

 

Jitter

 

kb/s

 

kB/s

 

Little Endian

 

 

LOA

 

Low-speed

 

LSb

 

LSB

 

Mb/s

 

MB/s

 

Message Pipe

 

Microframe

 

MSb

 

MSB

 

NAK

 

Non Return to Zero

Invert (NRZI)

 

NRZI

 

Object

 

Packet

 

Packet Buffer

 

Packet ID (PID)

 

 

Phase

 

Phase Locked Loop

(PLL)

 

Physical Device

 

PID

 

Pipe

 

PLL

 

Polling

 

POR

 

Port

 

Power On Reset

(POR)

 

Programmable

Data Rate

 

Protocol

 

 

RA

 

Rate Adaption

 

 

Request

 

Retire

 

Root Hub

 

Root Port

 

Sample

 

Sample Rate (Fs)

 

Sample Rate

Conversion (SRC)

 

Service

 

Service Interval

 

Service Jitter

 

Service Rate

 

SOF

 

SOP

 

SPI

 

Split transaction

 

SRC

 

Stage

 

Start-of-Frame

(SOF)

 

Stream Pipe

 

Synchronization

Type

 

Synchronous RA

 

 

Synchronous SRC

 

 

System

Programming

Interface (SPI)

 

 

TDM

 

TDR

 

Termination

 

 

Time Division

Multiplexing

(TDM)

 

Time Domain

Reflectometer

(TDR)

 

Timeout

 

Token Packet

 

Transaction

 

Transaction

translator

 

 

Transfer

 

 

Transfer Type

 

Turn-around Time

 

Universal Serial

Bus Driver (USBD)

 

Universal Serial

Bus Resources

 

Upstream

 

USBD

 

USB-IF (USB Implementers Forum Inc.)

 

Virtual Device

 

Word

A signal passed between communicating processes to signify acknowledgement of a response.

 

A device that is powered or currently in use.

 

Data transferred at random intervals between devices.

 

The incoming and outgoing data rate of the Rate Adaption process

are both independent. See Rate Adaption.

A device that is represented by a software interface layer.

The incoming and outgoing sample rate of the Sample Rate Conversion

process are both independent. See Sample Rate Conversion.

 

A device that sources sampled continuous signals for which the time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity.

 

The measurement of an electrical wire’s diameter.

 

The presence of bus activity past the end of a frame with the potential to either deadlock the bus or force out the beginning of the next frame.

 

A measurement comparing the amount of data transmitted against a given unit of time. Typically Bandwidth is calculated as either bits per second (b/s) or bytes per second (B/s).

 

A method of storing data that places the most significant byte at a lower storage address.

 

A unit of digital information. Expresses the choice between

two possibilities represented by a logical one (1) or zero (0).

 

Insertion of a zero (0) bit into a given stream of data to cause an electrical transition on the data wires, allowing a phase-locked loop control system to remain locked.

 

The rate at which information is processed by a transmission expressed in bits per second.

 

The rate at which information is processed by a transmission expressed in bytes per second.

 

 

Temporary data storage used to compensate for a difference in data rates when transferring data from one device to another.

 

Large, irregular communication typically used for a transfer that can use any available bandwidth.

 

Discovering and recognizing USB devices.

 

Eight (8) bits.

 

Features of a USB device executed by the host.

 

Unalterable qualities of a USB device.

 

A user that interacts with the USB to organize a data transfer between a function and the host.

 

A software resident on the host software that is responsible for configuring a

USB device.

 

A pair of device endpoints with the same endpoint number.

 

See Message Pipe.

 

Support configuration/command/status type transmissions between client and function.

 

Any technology that permits interactions on a telephone and a computer to be integrated.

 

A check performed on data to see if an error has occurred during transmission.

 

An address used by a USB device when it is first powered or reset.

 

The message pipe created by the USB System Software to pass control and

status information between the host and a USB device’s endpoint zero.

 

A collection of hardware components that perform a particular function.

 

A 7-bit value representing the address of a device on the USB.

 

A uniquely addressable portion of a USB that carries data between the host computer and device in only one direction.

 

Resources provided by a USB device.

 

 

A collection of programs and related data that are integrated within a USB device.

 

The direction of data flow traveling away from the host.

 

An I/O pad that drives an external load.

 

A program responsible for interfacing to a hardware device.

 

A data element that is thirty-two (32) bits in size.

 

 

The ability to attach and remove devices while the host is operating.

 

 

Stable, rewritable memory.

 

 

 

 

 

The user of a host.

 

See Device Endpoint.

 

An endpoint number with an endpoint direction on a USB device.

 

The direction of data transfer on a USB.

 

A four (4) bit value between 0H and FH.

 

An electronic circuit inside a USB device that detects certain voltage related signal characteristics within the USB data lines .

 

End of Frame.

 

End of Packet.

 

See Port.

 

A USB signaling representation that provides minimum and maximum

voltage levels.

 

An artificial, usually noise-activated event that is decoded by a packet receiver as an EOP.

 

A one (1) millisecond time base.

 

A sequence of frames that exhibit a repeating pattern in the number of samples transmitted per frame.

 

See sample rate.

 

A computer data transmission that occurs in both directions at once.

 

USB operation at twelve (12) Mb/s.

 

A USB device that administers a capability to the host.

 

A packet that approves or rejects a specific condition.

 

A high-speed device endpoint that transfers between 1024 to 3073 bytes per microframe.

 

USB operation at 480 Mb/s.

 

The computer system where the USB Host Controller is installed.

 

The host’s USB interface.

 

The USB software layer that provides an SPI for interaction with a Host Controller while hiding the specifics of its hardware implementation.

 

Resources provided by a host.

 

A device that provides multiple USB connections.

 

The number of USB links in a communication path between the host

and a function plus one (1).

 

A hardware signal that allows a device to request support from a host.

 

 

A small, non-periodic, low-frequency, and bounded-latency USB data transfer.

 

A request to move data between a host and an endpoint in an appropriate direction.

 

See I/O Request Packet.

 

See Interrupt Request.

 

Data stream whose timing is represented by its delivery rate.

 

 

A device with isochronous endpoints that consumes and produces sampled analog streams.

 

An endpoint that consumes isochronous data streams that are sent by the host.

 

 

An endpoint that produces isochronous data streams and sends it to the host.

 

 

USB data transfer that provides periodic, continuous communication between a host and a device.

 

Lack of synchronization caused by mechanical or electrical changes.

 

Kilobits per second.

 

Kilobytes per second.

 

Data storage process that places the least significant byte of multiple-byte

values at lower storage addresses.

 

Loss of bus activity.

 

USB operation at 1.5 Mb/s.

 

Least significant bit.

 

Least significant byte.

 

Megabits per second.

 

Megabytes per second.

 

A two-way pipe that transfers data using a request/data/status pattern.

 

A 125 microsecond time base.

 

Most significant bit .

 

Most significant byte.

 

Handshake packet that displays a negative acknowledgment.

 

A way of encrypting serial data in which one (1) and zero (0) are represented by conflicting fluctuations of high and low voltages.

 

See Non Return to Zero Invert.

 

A data structure symbolizing a USB.

 

A data bundle arranged for transmission.

 

Buffer used by a USB for transmitting or receiving a packet.

 

A field in a USB packet that displays the format and the type of error detection assigned to the packet.

 

A token, data, or handshake packet.

 

A circuit that keeps an oscillator in phase with approaching frequency.

 

 

A device that has a physical embodiment .

 

See Packet ID.

 

The association between an endpoint on a device and software on the host.

 

See Phase Locked Loop.

 

Asking multiple devices if they have any data to transmit.

 

See Power On Reset.

 

Point of access to or from a system or circuit.

 

Restoring a storage device, register, or memory to a predetermined state when

power is applied.

 

A fixed data rate.

 

 

A set of rules associated with the format and timing of data transmission between two devices.

 

See rate adaptation.

 

Process by which incoming data streams are changed to outgoing data streams.

 

A command made to a USB contained within a SETUP packet.

 

To complete service for a transfer and notify the software client.

 

A USB hub directly attached to the Host Controller.

 

The downstream port on a Root Hub.

 

Smallest data unit on which an endpoint operates.

 

Number of samples per second, expressed in Hertz (Hz).

 

An application of the RA process used on sampled analog data streams.

 

 

A procedure provided by a System Programming Interface (SPI).

 

Interval between requests to an endpoint to send or receive data.

 

The change of service delivery from its scheduled delivery time.

 

Number of services to an endpoint per unit time.

 

See Start-of-Frame.

 

Start-of-Packet.

 

See System Programming Interface.

 

A transaction type supported by host controllers and hubs.

 

See Sample Rate Conversion.

 

A part of a sequence composing a control transfer.

 

The first transaction in each (micro)frame.

 

 

A pipe that transmits data as a stream of samples.

 

Classification that distinguishes an isochronous endpoint’s ability to connect to other isochronous endpoints.

 

Incoming data rates and outgoing data rates of an RA process are derived from the same master clock.

 

Incoming sample rates and outgoing sample rates of the SRC process are derived from the same master clock.

 

A defined interface to services provided by system software.

 

 

 

 

See Time Division Multiplexing.

 

See Time Domain Reflectometer.

 

Inactive components attached at the end of cables to block signals from being displayed or mirrored.

 

Transmitting multiple signals simultaneously by interleaving a piece of each signal one after another.

 

 

Tool capable of measuring impedance characteristics of USB signal lines.

 

 

 

Detection of a lack of bus activity at an interval.

 

Packet that identifies what transaction is to be performed on the bus.

 

The delivery of service to an endpoint.

 

A USB component that reacts to special high-speed transactions and converts them to full/low-speed transactions with full/low-speed devices attached on downstream facing ports.

 

Bus transactions moved between a software client and its function.

 

 

Data flow category between a software client and its function.

 

The time a device needs to begin communicating a packet.

 

Provides services to clients that are manipulating a function on a Host Controller.

 

Resources provided by a USB.

 

 

The direction of data flow towards the host.

 

See Universal Serial Bus Driver.

 

Nonprofit corporation formed to facilitate the development of USB compliant products and promote the technology.

 

 

A device that is represented by a software interface layer.

 

Data element 16 bits in size.

 

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